eurokbus 0.7

Pan-European keyboard layout
(US base layout variant)

Simulated keyboard layout (requires JavaScript, some symbols may not display on all font settings):

The characters on the left of a key represent normal keypresses with and without Shift. The characters on the right are generated when pressed in combination with the AltGr key (the right-hand Alt key next to the spacebar, or Ctrl+left-Alt on a few old keyboards that don't have an AltGr key). Green characters represent ‘dead keys’, which have to be followed by a second keypress to generate a character.

Hover over a character for more details, click to simulate pressing the key with that combination of shift keys.

Typographic features

Holding down Shift and pressing space results in a ‘non-breaking space’. This looks like a normal space, but applications won't break a line of text on this character when word-wrapping.

The rest of eurokb's features are accessed through AltGr combinations. The square brackets, semicolon and comma/dot keys are used to input the various types of ‘smart quotes’, as single quotes, or double quotes when used with Shift:

Name Symbols AltGr+
English-style ‘...’ “...” [ ] { }
Lower-and-upper ‚...‘ „...“ ; [ : {
Guillemets ‹...› «...» , . < >

The lower-and-upper quotation marks are common in Germanic languages; guillemets are used in French and a variety of other languages.

Some languages use guillemets pointing »inwards«, others «outwards»; traditional French typesetting includes smaller-than-normal spaces around the inside of the guillemets (see ‘thin space’ below).

Name Symbol Input
En-dash AltGr+-
Em-dash AltGr+_

The en-dash and em-dash, on the minus/underline key, should be used in preference to the normal minus/hyphen character in some cases. En-dashes are used in ranges, for example ‘2000–Vista’. Em-dashes are for separating clauses—for example like this—and in some typographical traditions may be surrounded by thin spaces.

All remaining characters are implemented on ‘dead keys’: first a base key is pressed with the AltGr button, then a second key is pressed to alter it.

For example the ‘thin space’ can be obtained by typing AltGr+Space, then pressing ‘t’ for ‘thin’. (A number of other typographical variants of the space are available: click the AltGr+Space dead-key on the simulator above to see the full range.)

The US keyboard has one key fewer than the UK layout. This is the #~ key, which in the eurokbuk layout gives the middle dot and bullet point when pressed with AltGr. These can be alternatively be obtained for eurokbus using the deadkey combinations AltGr+*,. and AltGr+*,>.


Accented letters and other diacritical marks can be obtained by pressing AltGr with a letter key, then one of the accent keys. Some of the more obscure accents are obtained using AltGr+accent key as the second keypress too.

The common second-keys are as follows:

Key Mark (bare) Mark (Shift) Mark (AltGr) Mark (Shift+AltGr)
-_ bar macron belt macron below
=+ inverted breve breve double bar breve below
[{ acute double acute retroflex hook tail
]} grave double grave palatal hook long leg
;: cedilla diaeresis hook diaeresis below
'" horn ring half-ring ring below
,< comma caron ogonek descender
.> dot circumflex dot below circumflex below
/? stroke hook above curl
`~ tilde middle-tilde tilde below
\| superscript turned subscript smallcaps

The superscript/etc. key isn't exactly a diacritic, but it alters the base letter in a similar way. The rest map to the Unicode character designations for ‘Base-letter with accent-name’, except for the following gotchas:

To type an accent on its own, type AltGr+Space, then the accent key (ie. adding the accent to an empty space). You can also get a ‘combining’ version of an accent by typing AltGr+Shift+Space then the accent key. This should place the desired accent on top of the preceding letter. However the application and the font in use have to support combining diacritics for this to work well, otherwise the results can be quite ugly. There are lots of extra combining characters that aren't typical accents, mostly for phonetic purposes. Click AltGr+Shift+Space on the simulated keyboard above for a full list.


Ligatures and digraphs, along with a few obscure Latin letters which are based on ligatures, can be obtained by pressing AltGr+first-letter then the other letter. For a capital letter ligature/digraph where available, use AltGr+Shift+first letter than the other. Where a mixed-case digraph is also available, use Shift on both keys to get the fully-upper-case version.

Input Symbol aka
AltGr+s,s ẞ ß Sharp S (German)
AltGr+a,e Æ æ Ash
AltGr+o,e Œ œ Ethel
AltGr+o,u Ȣ ȣ
AltGr+h,v Ƕ ƕ Hwair
AltGr+n,g Ŋ ŋ Eng
AltGr+h,n ɧ
AltGr+f,n ʩ
AltGr+l,s ʪ
AltGr+l,z ʫ
AltGr+l,Z ɮ
AltGr+i,j IJ ij (Dutch)
AltGr+l,j LJ Lj lj (Slavic)
AltGr+n,j NJ Nj nj (Slavic)
AltGr+d,z DZ Dz dz (Polish etc.)
AltGr+d,j DŽ Dž dž (Serbian etc.)

There are also some ligatures sprinkled about the keyboard for some of the obsolete and non-IPA-standard phonetic ligatures. For example AltGr+t,S gives the tesh ligature (ʧ), which is now written as a separate t and esh (optionally with a combining tie).

Finally there are the ‘compatibility’ ligatures, such as ‘fi’ (AltGr+f,i) and ‘ffl’ (AltGr+f,L) and others. Unicode recommends just typing the component letters (to which the ligatures are semantically equivalent) and letting OpenType automatic glyph substitution handle it, but not all applications and fonts support it, so if a ligature is essential it would need to be inserted using this method.

Extra Latin letters

Some of the less-common Latin-derived letters are available on the ‘h’ second-key.

Input Symbol aka
AltGr+t,h Þ þ Thorn (Icelandic)
AltGr+d,h Ð ð Eth (Icelandic)
AltGr+s,h Ʃ ʃ Esh (phonetics)
AltGr+z,h Ʒ ʒ Ezh (phonetics)
AltGr+g,h ȝ Yogh (archaic)
AltGr+w,h ƿ Wynn (archaic)
AltGr+q,h Ƣ ƣ Gha (archaic)
AltGr+k,h ĸ Kra (archaic)
AltGr+r,h Ʀ Yr (archaic)
AltGr+y,h Ain (archaic)

Other letters used by IPA phonetics are also to be found on the ‘h’ second-key, as well as ‘r’. In many (but not all) cases the combination relates to an English spelling of the sounds.

Input Symbol aka Pronunciation
AltGr+a,h ɤ Rams horn Close-mid back unrounded vowel
AltGr+a,r ɑ Latin alpha Open back unrounded vowel
AltGr+e,h Ɛ ɛ Latin epsilon Open-mid front unrounded vowel
AltGr+e,r Ə ə Schwa Mid central vowel
AltGr+e,R ɚ Schwa with hook Unstressed rhotic vowel
AltGr+i,h ɘ Reversed E Close-mid central unrounded vowel
AltGr+i,r ɜ Reversed Latin epsilon Open-mid central unrounded vowel
AltGr+i,R ɝ Reversed epsilon with hook Stressed rhotic vowel
AltGr+o,h ɒ Turned Latin alpha Open back rounded vowel
AltGr+o,r Ɔ ɔ Turned C Open-mid back rounded vowel
AltGr+u,h Ʊ ʊ Latin upsilon Near-close near-back vowel
AltGr+u,r ɞ Closed reversed epsilon Open-mid central rounded vowel
AltGr+r,r ɾ R with fishhook Alveolar tap
AltGr+w,r ɰ Turned M with leg Velar approximant
AltGr+h,r ʁ Inverted smallcap R Voiced uvular fricative
AltGr+l,r ɺ Turned R with leg Alveolar lateral flap
AltGr+g,r Ɣ ɣ Latin gamma Voiced velar fricative
AltGr+g,R ʛ Smallcap G with hook Voiced uvular implosive
AltGr+j,r ɟ Dotless J with bar Voiced palatal plosive
AltGr+j,R ʄ J with bar and hook Voiced palatal implosive

The letter ‘ɛ’ is named an ‘open E’ by Unicode, but is really a Latinised Greek epsilon. The ‘ɔ’ is named ‘open O’ but is really a turned ‘c’ and so is duplicated on the AltGr+C,| combination.

Other characters used by IPA include Latin, Greek, smallcap, turned and accented letters accessed through through the other combinations. Additionally, the smallcap OE ligature ‘ɶ’ (Open front rounded vowel) is available under AltGr+o,E.

Letter marks

Assorted letter-based symbols.

Input Symbol aka
AltGr+p,c Pilcrow
AltGr+s,c § Section
AltGr+c,m © Copyright mark
AltGr+r,m ® Registered trademark
AltGr+p,m Publish mark
AltGr+t,m Trademark
AltGr+s,m Service mark
AltGr+c,o Care of
AltGr+c,u Cada una
AltGr+a,c Account
AltGr+a,s Addressed
AltGr+n,o Number
AltGr+l,b Pound
AltGr+o,z Ounce
AltGr+r,x Prescription
AltGr+e,s Estimate
AltGr+c,l Centre line
AltGr+t,e Tel
AltGr+R,/ Response


Various world currencies are available using ‘$’ as the second key.

Input Symbol Currency
AltGr+x,$ ¤ Generic
AltGr+e,$ Euro
AltGr+l,$ £ Sterling
AltGr+p,$ Peso
AltGr+y,$ ¥ Yen
AltGr+w,$ Won
AltGr+r,$ Rupee
AltGr+S,$ Shequel
AltGr+c,$ ¢ Cent
AltGr+m,$ Mill
AltGr+C,$ Colon
AltGr+d,$ Dong
AltGr+S,$ Hryvnia
AltGr+n,$ Naira
AltGr+k,$ Kip
AltGr+t,$ Tugrik
AltGr+g,$ Guarani

Extra alphabets

Phonetic ‘modifier letters’ are available by pressing AltGr+\ then the letter. Other symbols are present, notably the length indicator ‘ː’ on AltGr+\,: and stress marks on AltGr+\,1 and 2. See the simulated keyboard for the full range.

The Greek alphabet is available by pressing AltGr+`. The layout is a ‘phonetic layout’ mirroring the Greek analogues of the letters in the QWERTY layout. For example, pi is AltGr+`,p.

A variety of pictorial symbols such as arrows and icons is available on AltGr+¬.


Vulgar fractions can be typed using AltGr+number combinations, for example AltGr+1,4 for a quarter.

As well as the Latinised Greek letters in the phonetics section, a few others are available, most commonly AltGr+m,u for the SI ‘micro’ unit mu, AltGr+o,m for the Ohm unit omega and AltGr+m,o for the inverted omega Mho unit, plus AltGr+i,o for iota and AltGr+p,h for phi.

A few mathematical symbols are available on the AltGr+= and + deadkeys. Phonetic click symbols are available on the AltGr+! deadkey, the double vertical bar on AltGr+|,2, and glottal stops on the AltGr+' deadkey. Note that Unicode's ‘inverted glottal stop with stroke’ character is misnamed; this is actually a merged t and s glyph accessible as AltGr+t,z.

Not included in eurokb 0.7

Unicode has an enormous repertoire and not everything can fit on one keyboard. Notably missing: